Haydom Hospital has recently begun a randomized control trial (RCT) comparing the Upright bag-mask with and without PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure). PEEP is considered to benefit newborn and small infants by preventing repeated lung alveolar collapse, helping recruit lung volume more efficiently, clearing fluid from the lungs and reducing damage to the lung tissue during ventilation. The international Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) suggests using PEEP for preterm infants during delivery room resuscitation. However, ILCOR is unable to make any recommendation for term infants due to insufficient data. The RCT in Tanzania will be helpful in providing the data needed to support use of PEEP in order to improve newborn ventilation.